SIGMIS-CPR ’20- Proceedings of the 2020 on Computers and People Research Conference

SESSION: Awards

2020 ACM SIGMIS CPR Lifetime Achievement Award

  • Fred Niederman
  • Thomas W. Ferratt

We are pleased to announce that Dr. Thomas W. Ferratt, Professor Emeritus at the University of Dayton, is the recipient of the 2020 ACM SIGMIS CPR Lifetime Achievement Award. He served in leadership roles, including Chair, Conference Chair, and Program Chair, with ACM’s Special Interest Group on Computer Personnel Research (SIGCPR). Subsequent to its merger with SIGMIS, he continued to serve in leadership roles with the CPR Conference. Consistent with the conference theme, a major stream of his research has focused on the management of information systems professionals. His research has been published and featured in a variety of publications, including MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Journal of Management Information Systems, MIS Quarterly Executive, Communications of the ACM, The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, Information and Management, Communications of the AIS, Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations, Decision Sciences, and Computerworld.

His 2000 MIS Quarterly paper with Bob Roepke and Ritu Agarwal, Aligning the IT Human Resource with Business Vision: The Leadership Initiative at 3M,” received first place in the 1998 SIM Paper Competition. More recently, his 2016 paper with Fred Niederman and Eileen Trauth, “On the Co-Evolution of Information Technology and Information Systems Personnel,” in The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, received a 2017 Senior Scholars AIS Best Information Systems Publications Award, Dr. Ferratt’s academic career, beginning with his doctoral program at The Ohio State University in 1970, now spans 50 years. Prior to retirement at the end of 2016, he was at the University of Dayton for thirty years (1986-2016), where he served as an associate dean (1997-2000) and held the Sherman-Standard Register Endowed Chair in Management Information Systems from 2003 until his retirement. He also was on the faculty at Drake University (1974-84), where he served as a department chair (1980-82), a visiting faculty at Indiana University (1984-86), and a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California (2015).

2020 ACM SIGMIS Early Career Award

  • Mike Gallivan
  • Stacie Petter
  • Jeria Quesenberry

It is our great pleasure to announce that Dr. Christian Maier, University of Bamberg, Germany, is the recipient of the 2020 ACM SIGMIS Early Career Award. Dr. Maier is the first recipient of this new honor that recognizes the early achievements of young scholars in the field of management information systems. The award will be announced annually at the ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference. Following his studies in Information Systems, Dr. Maier received a three-year doctoral scholarship from the Bavarian Elite Foundation (BayEFG). He successfully completed his doctorate “Technostress: theoretical foundations and empirical evidence” in 2014. His work was awarded, among others, the Schmalenbach Prize 2015. In addition, his research work was nominated for Best Paper Awards (at both ECIS and ICIS) and was awarded the Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper Award of the ACM, among others.

SESSION: Keynote & Invited Talks

Artificial Intelligence as Innovation Accelerator

  • Christian Mühlroth

The origin and emergence of innovations has been a central question in research and practice for decades. In this context, technological progress plays a decisive role: Existing technologies and capabilities serve as building blocks for the innovations of tomorrow. Over time, the advancing technological evolution thus accelerates itself [1]. Being one of those building blocks, artificial intelligence is used to develop innovations that serve the needs of humans, the needs of other technologies, or both, for example in healthcare, the financial industry, and future mobility.

Recently, artificial intelligence has been given another area of application: It can also be used to anticipate future developments; not as a predictor for the future, but as versatile tool for analyzing big data sets in order to detect weak and strong signals of change, emerging trends, and newly-developed technologies [2]. Leading companies have been performing these analyses manually since years and for this reason, among others, were found to be more likely to outperform the industry [3]. However, with the ever-increasing amount of data that needs to be analyzed for this purpose, it has become inevitable to automate this task [4].

The areas of application are manifold [4]: The corporate environment can be continuously monitored in order to detect relevant changes at an early stage, leaving companies with more time to develop adequate response strategies. Strategic competitive intelligence can be used to observe and classify known market players, start-ups, and venture capital investments. In the front-end of innovation, consumer insights can be modeled and clustered to suggest ideas for product, service, and business model innovations. A risk radar helps to monitor and assess the probability and impact of current risks, allowing individual risk mitigation strategies to be developed.

When using artificial intelligence for innovation management – for example, as algorithms and features in a digital innovation platform – it is important to achieve early success with simple use cases. In the next step, the depth of integration and the complexity of the applications can be successively expanded. In order to permanently establish the use of artificial intelligence, it is important to build trust; all parties must be involved in the lean start and agile implementation process from the very beginning.

In the medium term, this technology will lead to a large number of new applications. There are already first successful applications of artificial intelligence in innovation management for generating and testing new business ideas, evaluating start-ups, assembling teams, and supporting branding and positioning of innovations. In the long term, we will see artificial intelligence become an integral part of fundamental decision-making processes. For example, research and development is already being performed on a new technology that develops and executes profitable investment strategies and decisions fully automated. As a consequence, future developments can not only be anticipated, but also considerably influenced in the near future.

Updating the Information Systems Curriculum: The ACM / AIS IS2020 Joint Project

  • Paul M. Leidig
  • Greg Anderson

The Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Association for Information Systems (AIS), two global professional and academic societies with a stake in Information Systems (IS) education, are engaged in a project to revise the Information Systems Curriculum for bachelor’s degrees. A joint taskforce on the Information Systems (IS2020) Model Curriculum was created following the report and recommendation of an Exploratory Taskforce. This panel seeks to introduce the work of this taskforce as well as engage the information systems community in this effort. The taskforce seeks to facilitate broad feedback during the IS2020 development process through surveys and open feedback requests. Panelists will introduce the key components of this process and seek input and feedback. This session should be of interest to all attendees, especially faculty developing college-level curricula in Information Systems.

SESSION: Session 1: IT innovation

An Innovation Activity Framework for Digital Innovation

  • Lukas Hellwig
  • Jan Pawlowski
  • Michael Schäfer

The digital transformation poses great challenges for companies on numerous levels. It changes existing processes and the activities associated with them. In this paper, we analyse which activities take place within innovation processes in enterprises, taking into account new approaches such as open, user and digital innovation in the context of digital transformation. In our study, we use a comprehensive literature review to identify all relevant activities along innovation processes. In total, 48 activities within seven phases can be identified on the basis of 16 considered references. We further identify eight specific practices of digital innovation and derive a dependency. Hereby, we contribute to a better understanding of the impact of digital transformation on innovation processes and provide a practice-oriented overview. Furthermore, the findings form a solid basis for further empirical studies.

Leveraging Information Systems Outsourcing for Innovation

  • Marfri Gambal
  • Aleksandre Asatiani
  • Julia Kotlarsky

This study is motivated by the apparent shortage of research on information systems (IS) outsourcing engagements that are leveraged for innovation on the client firm’s behalf. Building on existing insights related to this managerial problem, we explore factors located within and outside the boundaries of an outsourcing engagement that shape the dynamics of the underlying innovation initiative. We are in the process of conducting a qualitative case study investigating four innovation through IS outsourcing engagements at an Austrian care home. Our preliminary findings indicate that an effective organization of IS outsourcing for innovation necessitates consideration of how engagement-specific factors and factors outside of the project may affect an initiative’s innovation potential. With the framework of innovation through outsourcing, we propose an approach to capture these factors holistically.

How does the User Type Affect the Acceptance of Digital Innovation on the Job: Research in Progress

  • Timon Sengewald
  • Julian Boha
  • Angela Roth

Digital technologies promise greater effectiveness and higher productivity for companies. The question of the factors influencing the success of such technologies has long been a subject of research. However, these factors seem to be depending on the user type. This paper handles the case of the implementation of a new mobile application to support distinct work processes and presents preliminary results. A total of two field observations and 22 interviews were conducted to create a framework that promotes the development of digital innovations by systematically identifying characteristics that improve the adoption rate.

Examining the Influence of Product Innovation on Social Media Platforms: Evidence from Instagram

  • Reza Alibakhshi
  • Shirish C. Srivastava

Grounding our discussion in social penetration and resource allocation theories, we propose and test the influence of introducing a new product, namely Instagram Story, on the usage and content creation behavior on the Instagram platform. Employing a quasi-experimental setting, we investigate the influence of introducing this new product on user engagement and content generation. Our findings identify the significant influence of Instagram Story on the user engagement with the original product i.e. Instagram Post and the overall resource expenditure by content providers. Through our study we delineate several important implications for both research and practice. Specifically, our study provides significant insights for platform owners and content providers to better design and implement new products on social media platforms.

SESSION: Session 2: Blockchain

Is Cryptocurrency Money?: Three Empirical Studies Analyzing Medium of Exchange, Store of Value and Unit of Account

  • Jens Mattke
  • Christian Maier
  • Lea Reis

Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum or Ripple, are discussed as a new form of money. Typically, money fulfills three core functions: 1) medium of exchange, 2) store of value, and 3) unit of account. To examine whether individuals consider cryptocurrencies as money, we conduct three studies. Study 1 (N=57) provides valid and reliable measurement items for the three core functions of money. Study 2 (N=95) shows that the general perception about the fulfillment of the core functions is rather positive for cryptocurrencies. The results from Study 3 (N=99) furthermore reveal that Bitcoin is perceived significantly better in fulfilling all three functions than Ethereum or Ripple. The findings suggest that cryptocurrency research needs to include or at least control for the basic perceptions of core functions when examining individuals’ adoption or use of cryptocurrency as money. Furthermore, the findings suggest that existing knowledge from Bitcoin use or adoption research cannot be easily transferred to the context of another cryptocurrency.

Policy Formation Without Authority: Towards Resilient Financial Infrastructure for Emerging Economies

  • Omri Ross
  • Johannes Rude Jensen

We document the design and development of a modular blockchain IT artefact, affording stakeholders in emerging economies the ability to deploy and collectively govern resilient financial infrastructure. The artefact comprises a smart contract system implementing an iterative policy framework through which stakeholders engage in collective deliberation on the compilation, redistribution and inflation of a native asset class. Stakeholders submit and elect ‘schemes’ implementing policy measures, such as taxation, through voting sessions weighted by ‘reputation scoring’. We aim to contribute towards the emerging discourse on the utility of blockchain technology in emerging economies.

SESSION: Session 3: Digital Transformation

Applying Enterprise Architecture for Digital Transformation of Electro Mobility towards Sustainable Transportation

  • Bokolo Anthony Jnr.

Electro Mobility (eMobility) involves deploying Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and electric technologies in vehicles to enable electric propulsion of vehicles referred to as Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are key infrastructure for achieving a sustainable energy future since EV usage can support in achieving CO2 reduction. However, the deployment of EVs for eMobility is highly dependent on data integration of mobility solutions from different stakeholders involved in urban transportation. Respectively, data integration from different mobility services will result to cost reduction and create valued added services to citizens. Therefore, there is need to achieve data integration not only for physical systems but for all domains in providing mobility related services that can be synergically applied to citizens and stakeholders in order to develop innovative solutions at district and urban level. Therefore, this study adopts Enterprise Architecture (EA) for digital transformations of eMobility services for sustainable transportation. Action research methodology was employed and secondary data from the literature was presented in the industrial data space reference architecture to initially validate digital transformation of electro mobility. Findings from this study reveal that EA support digital transformation of eMobility in managing data integration to support cities to implement sustainable transportation services.

Automation Anxiety as a Barrier to Workplace Automation: An Empirical Analysis of the Example of Recruiting Chatbots in Germany

  • Judith Eißer
  • Mario Torrini
  • Stephan Böhm

Workplace automation substantially changes the overall working environment. Through artificial intelligence and robotics, more and more complex tasks can be automated. Various jobs could undergo significant changes or even cease to exist due to these technological advancements. One area affected by these developments is the recruitment in enterprises. Chatbot systems have the potential to automate the communication processes within recruiting. This automation could cause automation anxiety perceived by recruiters due to their job being at risk of automation. Within this study, the influence of automation anxiety perceived by recruiters on the acceptance of chatbot technology is assessed. Methodologically, an adaptation of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is proposed for the assessment of recruiting chatbot acceptance by exchanging the original construct computer anxiety with the more focused construct automation anxiety (AANX). The completed pre-study as preparatory work for a more comprehensive recruiting acceptance study presented in this paper resulted in 83 participants. As a preliminary result, AANX is supported as a construct significantly influencing recruiters’ perceived level of chatbot acceptance through its positive relationships with job relevance and perceived usefulness. However, recruiters seem to ostensibly focus on the opportunities that chatbot systems offer, which are perceived as useful and positive and only sporadically on potential concerns of this technology.

IoT Devices in the Workplace: Assessing Emerging Challenges for the Enterprises – A Systematic Meta-Analysis

  • Asif Shaikh

The Internet of Things (IoT) is reshaping industries and so is the employees’ range of informal-IT usage in the workplace. This research study assesses the emerging risks and threats that arise from the increasing prevalence of employee-owned IoT devices in the new wave of IT-consumerism within enterprise premises. Most enterprises have adapted to the change brought by the personal-IT devices such as laptops, smartphones, and cloud applications, and have introduced security policies of either allowing under Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) environment, or completely restricting its usage in preventing unauthorized access to sensitive information assets. Existing research has started focusing on possible threats of employee use of IoT devices that are outside the control of IT management. This study presents a theoretical explanation of three key aspects that are discussed in the existing scholarship: threat dimension, detection, and prevention of IoT enabled Insider threat.

A systematic meta-analysis comprising of 15 research studies in current scholarship examining IoT enabled Insider threats in the workplace. Through analyzing the reported measurements and consolidating findings through systematic classification in various themes, this document identifies and systematically highlights various specific attack vectors, detection mechanism of IoT enabled malicious and unintentional threats, attack incidents/scenarios and ways and means to prevent the insider threat emerging from employee use of personal/consumer IoT devices. Based on the findings, a framework of IS research and responses to IoT enabled Insider threat by integrating and extending the work done on understanding such risks. The framework highlights the gravity of risk areas and challenges in preventing sensitive data assets of enterprises for future research.

Digital Assistants Conveying Emotion

  • Reed Marques
  • Sara Moussawi

Artificial intelligence is evolving at an unprecedented pace. The ability to convey emotion is one of the largest roadblocks preventing artificially intelligent agent from becoming truly anthropomorphic and integral in modern society. There are several works that have made a connection between anthropomorphism and emotion but none have directly tested the effect of anthropomorphism on a user’s perceived emotion of the technology. Prior research showed that users prefer to interact with agents who can convey emotion as they perceive them to be more intelligent and humanlike. By being able to systematically increase perceived emotion in intelligent agents, we can further advance the domain of smart devices and increase adoption rates. Higher adoption rates leads to more research and open source projects, which ultimately translates to a better experience using them. This proposed research aims to explore the relationship between users’ perceived anthropomorphism and perceived emotion of digital assistants.

The Effect of First Impressions of an E-Commerce Chatbot’s Personality and Abilities on Expectations for the User Experience

  • Sasha Volodin
  • Sara Moussawi

Research shows that a user is less likely to use a chatbot again if there is a failure in the interaction. Hence, first impressions with chatbots could help retain more users and loyal customers for the business. A chatbot’s personality, like other anthropomorphic qualities, can give users a sense of the chatbot’s abilities. Therefore, we hypothesize that a combination of personality cues and clear information about a chatbot’s abilities will help to maximize user experience and increase the number of repeat users of the chatbot. A chatbot’s first greeting is important because it is what the user sees before deciding whether to continue using the chatbot. It is also the basis for a user’s initial assessment of what using the chatbot will be like and can thus affect the size of the expectation gap. This research could help inform and guide the design of e-commerce chatbots.

Artificially Intelligent or Humanly Artificial?: Examining User Engagement in AI Tools

  • Shalini Chandra
  • Anuragini Shirish
  • Shirish C. Srivastava

Grounding our work in competency and organizational support literature, we investigate the applicability of the Turing test in fostering user engagement with artificially intelligent (AI) machines. While prior information systems literature posits the significant role of ‘instrumental value’ of technology in fostering user engagement, Turing’s thesis inspires us to design AI machines with ‘human competencies’. In our ongoing research, we establish the significant role of task and emotional competencies as the desirable attributes in AI for fostering user engagement. However, our results negate the significance of social competencies in AI for fostering user engagement. These findings have noteworthy implications for both research and practice, which we intend to describe in our poster presentation.

SESSION: Session 4: IT Students

Preparing for Projects: IT Student Self-Evaluation of Technical and Professional Skills

  • Leigh Ellen Potter

As Information Technology academics we seek to prepare our students for their future endeavours, and these are generally focused on an IT professional career. To commence such a career, our graduates need a range of skills, both technical and professional and the ability to demonstrate these skills. In this paper a study of a graduating class of IT students is examined to explore their own identification and evaluation of their skills. Their self-rated skills are compared to a peer evaluation, assessor evaluation, and an evaluation from the industry partner to determine the accuracy of their self-rated skills evaluation.

Academic Factors in IT Student Graduation Rates

  • Alana Platt
  • Onochie Fan-Osuala
  • Arek Kashian

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between academic features and attrition rates. Using registrar information from a set of IT students, we investigate how student performance in specific classes impacts their likelihood of graduating and length of time to graduation. Our results show that significant relationships exist between courses that are classified as required, difficult, or more advanced. This work-in-progress is building towards a model using student academic features and demographic information to predict students at risk for attrition.

SESSION: Session 5: IT Professionals

Analysing Gender Bias in IT Job Postings: A Pre-Study Based on Samples from the German Job Market

  • Stephan Böhm
  • Olena Linnyk
  • Jens Kohl
  • Tim Weber
  • Ingolf Teetz
  • Katarzyna Bandurka
  • Martin Kersting

In Germany, as in many other industrial nations, there is currently a shortage of skilled workers in the IT sector, also known as the “war for talents”. It is becoming increasingly difficult for companies to find suitable personnel using traditional recruiting instruments. Against this background, but also due to legal requirements, it is becoming more and more important that job postings are formulated in such a way that they have the greatest possible impact and no group of suitable applicants feels excluded. This study presents an approach that can be used to measure the gender bias in job postings in particular. A respective tool could provide recruiters with an instrument to identify and prevent unwanted gender bias. In our study, the prototype of such a tool will be developed and initially applied to analyse job postings in the IT sector of the German job market in comparison to samples from the automotive and health care sectors. We present some key statistics of this analysis and an outlook on future work.

What Makes IT Professionals Special?: A Literature Review on Context-Specific Theorizing in IT Workforce Research

  • Barbara Prommegger
  • Manuel Wiesche
  • Helmut Krcmar

Research on the IT workforce has played an important role in IS research for the past 40 years. An essential part of IT workforce research deals with the contextualization of theories. Models and theories are adapted to the IT environment by integrating context-specific factors to explicitly account for relevant IT-specific conditions. Our literature review addresses context-specific theorizing in IT workforce research to understand IT-specific contextual factors. By analyzing papers dealing with IT workforce related topics published in the Senior Scholars’ Basket of Journals and in selected additional journals, we examine the process of contextualization in two ways. First, we synthesize predominant IT-specific contextual factors for IT workforce research. Second, we investigate approaches of contextualization in IT workforce literature. We present nine IT-specific contextual factors grouped by three perspectives. Additionally, we introduce two approaches for contextualization in the IT workforce research and give recommendations for context-specific theorizing. Our literature review contributes to a better understanding of the uniqueness of IT professionals by providing information about how context-specific theorizing is being considered in IT workforce research.

Short-term Affair or Long-term Commitment?: An Investigation of Employees without IT Background in IT Jobs

  • Barbara Prommegger
  • Mathias Wendrich
  • Manuel Wiesche
  • Helmut Krcmar

The IT profession is constantly changing. The rapid development of technology and the high demand for IT specialists has led to a broader and more diverse profile of IT professionals with fewer boundaries regarding organizations and occupations. As a result, companies have encouraged the migration of employees with different backgrounds into the IT sector. Drawing on the theory of the boundaryless profession, we explore this transformation in IT careers. By studying 355 career sequences of IT professionals in Germany, we investigate the career mobility of employees without an IT background working in IT jobs. Our results show that only around one-third of employees without an IT background remained in IT for the long-term. The majority of the sample, however, either returned to their original sector or moved to another after a few years in IT. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the boundaryless IT profession and sheds light on the role of employees without an IT background in IT jobs.

Developing an IT Career Anchor Fit Construct: An Organizational Equilibrium Theory Approach

  • Michael A. Erskine
  • Sam Zaza
  • Stoney Brooks
  • Ken Armstrong

Organizations continue to struggle with recruiting and retaining qualified IT professionals. Yet, little is known about the reasons that some IT professionals decide to leave the IT profession altogether. Educating, recruiting, and developing the specialized IT workforce is a major undertaking, so understanding why individuals turn away from their careers is crucial. This research-in-progress explores what factors affect IT professionals’ turnaway intentions through the lens of organizational equilibrium theory. Expected implications for research and practice are discussed.

Job Seekers’ Artificial Intelligence-related Black Box Concerns

  • Jessica Ochmann
  • Sandra Zilker
  • Sven Laumer

Turnover and Turnaway of IT Workers: A Person-Environment Fit Perspective

  • Caroline Ernestine Oehlhorn
  • Christian Maier
  • Tim Weitzel

Especially in view of the increasing skill shortage, the retention of information technology (IT) workers in organizations remains one of the three most important IT management issues for practitioners [11]. Organizations are confronted with two relevant behavioral outcomes on behalf of IT workers in this context: turnover and turnaway. While turnover means that IT workers leave their employer and start working for another employer while staying in the IT profession, turnaway reflects the abandonment of the IT profession [9]. Previous research emerging from the CPR community examines a variety of factors that lead to IT workers’ turnover and turnaway, e.g. perceived job alternatives [10, 12], job satisfaction, organizational commitment [13], or personality attributes [5]. These can be classified into three categories on a superior level: individual, job-related, and organization-related factors [10]. Do these factors no longer fit with the IT workers’ expectations, the intention to turn over or turn away is developed. The influence of the existing or absent fit on workers’ individual outcomes, such as turnover or turnaway, is grounded in person-environment fit theory [6, 8]. In the work-related context, this environment fit consists of five dimensions:

  • –person-vocation fit (the worker’s fit with the profession s/he chose),
  • –person-job fit (the worker’s fit with the job s/he is currently working in),
  • –person-organization fit (the worker’s fit with the organization, where s/he is currently employed),
  • –person-group fit (the worker’s fit with the work group or team s/he is working with), and
  • –person-person fit (the worker’s fit with her/his supervisor).

The person-environment fit theory has already taken up in information systems research examining the development of single fit dimensions out of work-related factors [14, 15].

In our research, we focus on the entirety of fit dimensions as included in the person-environment fit theory as well as on their influence of IT workers’ turnover and turnaway intention. The analysis will be performed along different demographic characteristics, which have been evidently shown to play a role in previous studies on turnover and turnaway: age [7], gender [9], work experience, and job type [5] (see Figure 1).

Job Satisfaction Following Turnover and the Moderating Role of Past Job Satisfaction for IT Professionals

  • Faheem Ahmed Shaikh
  • Damien Joseph

We investigate job satisfaction of Information Technology professionals after actual turnover using a longitudinal dataset of eight annual waves of data. The results indicate that turnover has a positive direct effect on subsequent job satisfaction and compared to those with high job satisfaction, individuals with low job satisfaction see higher increase after turnover.

SESSION: Session 6: Stress and Coping

Job-Leisure and Work-Family Conflict: Do they Really Matter in IT Professional Turnover?

  • Kurt A. Hoffmaster
  • Jose O. Angeles
  • Indira R. Guzman
  • Kenneth W. Cromer

Motivation, job satisfaction, and employee turnover intentions are not new topics in the employment of Information Technology (IT) professionals. Several previous turnover intention studies highlighted already proven factors related to turnover intention such as motivation and job satisfaction. There is limited research on the role that job-leisure and work-family conflict play in relation to turnover intention. This study examines how turnover intention in IT professionals is affected by extrinsic and intrinsic motivation when specifically factoring for work-family conflict and job-leisure conflict. Data for this study was gathered from IT professionals across the United States with a total of 170 valid responses. Results of the analysis indicated a significant association with intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Our study did not support the hypothesis that extrinsic motivation positively affected job satisfaction. Most importantly, the moderating effects of work-family and job-leisure conflict between job satisfaction and turnover intention were supported. Findings from this study increase the understanding of motivational factors that affect IT professional’s turnover intentions.

Communication Measures to Reduce Techno-Invasion and Techno-Overload: A Qualitative Study Uncovering Positive and Adverse Effects

  • Katharina Pflügner
  • Lea Reis
  • Christian Maier
  • Tim Weitzel

The perception of specific techno-stressors, such as techno- invasion or techno-overload, negatively influences employees’ performance and organizations’ profit. Therefore, it is imperative for organizations to implement specific, deliberate mitigation strategies. Among others, communication measures have the potential to reduce employees’ perception of techno-invasion and techno-overload. Basing on 38 semi-structured interviews with working employees, this study identifies five communication measures and their positive and adverse effects in reducing techno-invasion and techno-overload from the perspective of employees. Enlarging related research on technostress mitigation, the results show that none of the analyzed communication measures is limitation-free. Therefore, we conclude that organizations need to introduce more elected and comprehensive communication measures, representing employees’ individual needs and characteristics to reduce techno-invasion and techno-overload sustainably. Theoretically, our research enlarges prior findings on technostress and on mitigation of technostress presenting specific mitigation strategies for two specific techno-stressors as well as positive and adverse effects of these mitigation strategies.

Danger vs Fear: An Empirical Study on Wearable Users’ Privacy Coping

  • Krutheeka Baskaran
  • Saji K. Mathew

With the arrival of Internet of Things, the magnitude of data shared through various devices has seen a drastic increase. Fitness trackers contribute to a significant part of this phenomenon. Increase in collection of individual’s information has led to increase in privacy issues like identity theft and targeted marketing. This study treats information privacy as a distinct dimension and develops a model, drawing from extant privacy concern literature, Extended Parallel Process Model and coping theory to understand an individual’s coping behavior when faced with a privacy breach to their user generated health data. The model is empirically tested by conducting a sample survey with 225 fitness tracker users. Our findings show that increased privacy concern increases threat perceptions, which has a major impact on an individual’s coping behavior. The major contribution of this study is towards the understanding of the impact of fear over loss of one’s health-data privacy and the resulting shift in the attitude towards the technology itself. Theoretically this study extends fear appeals theory to information privacy by incorporating the role of individual’s privacy concern. This study implies that manufacturers and policy makers in healthcare domain need to re-examine privacy and data processing policies keeping in mind potential consumer privacy concerns.

Agile and Overworked?: The Role of Work Overload and Psychological Detachment in Agile Information Systems Development Projects

  • Veronika Huck-Fries
  • Barbara Prommegger
  • Manuel Wiesche
  • Helmut Krcmar

The role of work overload in work performance has received much study. In this research-in-progress paper, we shed light on how agile information systems development (ISD) practices can influence this relationship. Using the stressor-detachment model as a theoretical base, we present our research model and propose that agile ISD practices reduce work overload and, in turn, foster ISD project success. We furthermore suggest that psychological detachment moderates this relationship. The agenda for data collection and analysis is described.

SESSION: Session 7: Further topics

Benefits in Privacy Research: A Literature Review, Status Quo and Future Research Directions

  • Jakob Wirth
  • Christian Maier
  • Sven Laumer
  • Caroline E. Oehlhorn
  • Tim Weitzel

Research in the stream of privacy considers benefits as an important and central concept. Benefits are the positive outcomes that individuals will experience when disclosing information. However, we see that only few papers theorize benefits in their research and thereby the operationalization and understanding of benefits is mixed, unstandardized and seems to follow no specific order. Based on that observation, we aim to provide a first step towards a standardized usage of benefits in privacy research studies, by summarizing existing benefits in privacy research and categorizing them. To do so, we base on the theory of perceived value. This theory uses five dimensions (emotional value, social value for myself, social value for others, monetary value as well as utility value), which we use to categorize different benefits. The results confirm our initial observations that indeed different constructs of benefits are used even in the same research context without justification. Implications among others refer to the recommendation to use the same term for the same construct and to consider all five dimensions of benefits in privacy research studies.

Science-Fiction Movies as an Indicator for User Acceptance of Robots in a Non-Industrial Environment

  • Nina Merz
  • Maximilian Huber
  • Freimut Bodendorf
  • Jörg Franke

Challenges of Applying Predictive Analytics in Transport Logistics

  • Hendrik Birkel
  • Matthias Kopyto
  • Corinna Lutz

The field of Predictive Analytics (PA) provides the possibility to utilize large amounts of data to improve forecasting, data-driven decision-making, and competitive advantage. Especially the transport logistics sector, which is characterized by high business-related uncertainties, time-sensitivity, and volatility, highly benefits from accurate resource and production planning. While success factors and framework conditions of applying PA are well-investigated on a theoretical SCM level, findings on internal and external challenges of transport logistics organizations remain scarce. Therefore, based on a multiple case approach, this study offers in-depth insights into six real-world cases of freight forwarders, ocean carriers, and air carriers. The results uncover both internal and external challenges. From the internal perspective, the biggest challenges are related to the technical implementation including the acquisition of globally generated, internal and external data and its harmonization. In addition, stakeholder management and target setting impede the development of PA. Regarding external challenges, relational and external conditions hamper the application. Therefore, especially actions of third-party institutions in terms of standardization and security enhancements are required. This study contributes to the existing literature in various ways as the systematic identification addresses real-world issues of PA in the neglected but crucial area of transport logistics, discussing urgent research needs and highlighting potential solutions. Additionally, the results offer valuable guidance for managers when implementing PA in transport logistics.

If I Cannot See It, It Is Not There – A Graphical Approach to De-escalating Commitment

  • Leonard Michels

Escalation of commitment is a common bias in human decision- making. It has been studied for more than 40 years, however, an effective measure to de-escalate commitment is still missing. In order to find a new method of de-escalating commitment, this paper integrates past research on the effects of information about opportunity costs on escalation of commitment, and on the influence of information systems using graphical presentation formats on human decision making. It investigates whether graphically presenting information about opportunity costs or sunk costs influences an individual’s tendency to escalate commitment. An online experiment with 380 participants was conducted, in which four decision scenarios were presented. The participants received information about the decision alternatives either in a table or in dashboards containing one graph and a table. Contrary to the first hypothesis, graphically presenting information about opportunity costs did not lead to decreased escalation behavior. The second hypothesis, which proposed an increasing effect of graphically presenting information about sunk costs, was supported by the data. Information systems using graphical information presentation might, therefore, be a promising approach to alter human decisions in economic contexts.

Predicting Success in Using ERP Systems

  • Bih-Ru Lea
  • Dinesh Mirchandani
  • Mary Sumner

This research explores the influence of personality types on ERP system learning performance. Four personality types were identified using cluster analysis based on the Big Five personality traits, i.e., conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and agreeableness. These four personality types were found to be significantly associated with ERP learning performance. Additionally, prior knowledge, learning motivation, demographic factors (such as gender, age, year in school), and social as well as culture influences were found to moderate the relationships between the personality types and ERP learning performance. These findings can provide valuable insights for the organizational success of ERP systems by helping to identify which users can learn to utilize these systems effectively.

A Conceptual Model of Antecedents of Emergent Leadership in Agile Teams

  • Leonard Przybilla
  • Alexander Präg
  • Manuel Wiesche
  • Helmut Krcmar

Self-organization is a key proposition of agile software development (ASD). Despite this stark emphasis, there is little understanding how self-organization actually works. Drawing on established findings in general group research, we propose emergent leadership, that is taking on leadership roles without formal authority, to be an enabler of effective self-organization in ASD teams. By contextualizing extant knowledge, we develop a theoretical model of antecedents of emergent leadership in ASD teams and how ASD practices reinforce these relationships. Our model is of value to research by increasing understanding which factors make agile teamwork effective.

SESSION: Session 8: Doctoral Consortium

Evolution of Enterprise Social Media Networks: A Research Proposal

  • Sebastian Schötteler

Humans, as social beings, regularly create social ties with each other. Hence, social networks of interconnected humans – such as friendship or collaboration networks – are commonplace. In this context, the proliferation of social media such as Facebook, Reddit, and Twitter have significantly influenced how humans form social ties, resulting in an abundance of social-media-based social networks, or more briefly, social media networks [3].

In line with this development, a growing number of organizations are using enterprise social media (ESM) to support their internal communication and collaboration [2]. Analogous to public social media, the collective use of ESM creates ESM networks that connect employees across departments and hierarchical levels [4]. Consistent with this scenario, considerable research has examined the structures of ESM networks. However, few researchers have addressed the evolution of ESM networks – that is, how ESM network structures evolve over time [5].

Disregarding such evolution has two main shortcomings [1]. First, it impedes studying how ESM network structures such as dyads emerge, are sustained, and dissolve over time. Second, it hampers the analysis of how external factors such as changes in ESM platforms or organizational measures affect ESM network structures. Addressing these shortcomings would enable insights to better manage ESM networks. For instance, these insights could be used to support employee socialization processes such as onboarding processes in ESM networks, or to adjust ESM platforms to optimize their associated ESM networks.

Within this context, the current paper proposes a research project that would examine the evolution of ESM network structures by answering three research questions. First, what are the underlying processes of ESM network evolution from employee level to global network level? Second, what are the antecedents of these evolutionary processes? Third, what are the implications of these evolutionary processes for employees, groups, and organizations? To address these questions, the proposed research project will entail an initial literature review. The review will enable a summary of the status of research on ESM network evolution and the identification of knowledge gaps. The most relevant gaps will then be addressed through empirical studies to analyze specific processes of ESM network evolution. Each empirical study will apply a data-driven approach to reconstruct the observed longitudinal ESM networks using the databases of their underlying ESM platforms. This data thus obtained will be precise and can be studied via stochastic models for empirical social network analyses. Such analysis would address the statistical interdependencies in ESM networks.

The research project proposed in this paper is aimed at contributing to a comprehensive understanding of ESM network evolution in general. The results could be used in further research, for instance, to develop ESM network evolution models [1]. Moreover, the findings may enable organizations to optimize their ESM networks [5].

Investigating Social Phenomena in IT Project Teams as Dynamic Entities

  • Leonard Przybilla

To complete complex, knowledge-intensive tasks, IT work critically relies on effective teamwork enabled by well-functioning team processes and constructs. Considering general trends in team research, I propose to consider IT project teams as dynamic instead of static entities. Embracing this proposition, this dissertation sets out to explore three social phenomena at different levels of the team. Using an external perspective, I explore group divisions, called faultlines, and subgroups in IT project teams. Adopting an internal and cross-boundary view, I investigate the effects of fluid team membership. Lastly, I study emergent leadership in IT project teams as a means of effective organization.

Mass Communication on Social Media: The Case of Fake News

  • Maximilian Haug

?Fake News” is described as misinformation, fabricated to mislead its readers without providing objective facts. The increasing use and relevance of social media in nowadays society elevates the power of the intentional spreading of false information. The terminology of ?Fake News” first gained attention of the public in the US election in 2016. Stories about election manipulation were shared among social media and were widely discussed in the web. This phenomenon will not decline with the increase importance of social media platforms nowadays. Maliciously spreading false information does not only find application in the political sphere but can also cause economic damage, which the case of the United Airlines in 2008 shows. The impact of what people believe on social media affected the share price after the spreading false information about United Airlines’ bankruptcy. Also, misinformation about pandemic outbreaks can harm society as a whole by inducing panic. These instances show that a better understanding of dynamics of social media needs to be investigated, how users engage with information on social media. In contrast to mass communication models in the past, in which a gatekeeper (e.g. a news outlet) had the sole power of what the reader will see on the newspaper, nowadays users themselves emerged to gatekeepers on their own with the possibility to publish information. This opens up paths for new dynamics which are tied to the social media platforms with their sharing and liking mechanisms. The research is based on Westley and MacLean’s Model of Communication with the added possibilities for the entities to interact with each other every time. Based on this model, theories of mass communication such as the ?spiral of silence” or effects like ?the sleeper effect” shall be tested and evaluated how these phenomena emerge now in the space of social media. There are several theories which explain behavior based on behavior of peers or groups, such as Herding Theory or Theory of Reasoned Action. Further elaboration is needed on how the spiral of silence is unique and how it is different from other theories. Early findings stressed the importance of the source. However, it is not yet clear how platform specific mechanisms such as liking or sharing can influence the perceived public opinion of users.

Exploring the Roles and Contributions of Participants as Designers in Projects Utilising Augmented Reality: Doctoral Consortium Abstract

  • Alexandra Thompson