SIGMIS-CPR ’21- Proceedings of the 2021 on Computers and People Research Conference

SESSION: Session 1 – The Role of IT During a Crisis

Incentivising the Adoption of COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps: A Randomised Controlled Online Experiment on the German Corona-Warn-App

  • Victoria Fast
  • Daniel Schnurr

Contact-tracing apps constitute a key pillar of many nations’ public health strategy to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the effectiveness of digital contact-tracing depends crucially on widespread app installation and usage among citizens. Despite the large social benefits, evidence on the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate adoption of contact-tracing apps is scarce. Whereas monetary compensations for app installation or usage provide users with a direct economic benefit, research in related health domains has found that extrinsic incentives may crowd out intrinsic motivation and pro-social behaviour. Thus, we conduct a randomised controlled online experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of different incentive mechanisms in promoting the installation and usage of the German Corona-Warn-App (CWA). We find that monetary incentives are effective in significantly increasing verified app installations and app usage 14 days after installation, up to three times the usage without compensation. Deferred monetary compensation for verified usage yields lower installation rates than immediate monetary compensation for installation, but sustains the highest retention rate among adopters. Non-monetary compensation in the form of optional charity donations is found to be ineffective in promoting installations or usage beyond outcomes of monetary incentives, suggesting that there is no substantial crowding-out of intrinsic motives. This suggests that monetary incentives can serve as an important policy instrument to encourage the adoption of contact-tracing apps and contain the spread of COVID-19.

Tweeting the Alarm: Exploring the Efficacy of Twitter as a Serial Transmitter during the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Jackie London

In this research I seek to understand the efficacy of Twitter as a platform for serial transmission of a crisis communications. As members of the public adopt social media, these platforms are seen as an increasingly strategic channel through which crisis communications can be transmitted. However, there is insufficient understanding of the extent to which these platforms and their users effectively amplify and spread crisis-relevant information during a crisis. I explore these issues in the context of US state health departments and their efforts to inform the public of developments during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do this, I analyze the profiles of the official Twitter account for all 50 state health departments and seek to classify them according to their social presence on social media. Then, I analyze the COVID-19 tweets these health departments sent during the pandemic to better understand how their social media presence and the nature of their messages (tweets, words, URLs, mentions per 7 day) affect the total number of twitter users exposed to each message. My results suggest that systematic differences do exist in the social media presence for state health departments. These differences, as well as the characteristics of the tweets they sent during the pandemic help explain the total number of people exposed to their messages such that short, frequent messages with URLs from departments with high social presence reaching the largest number of users per week. These findings have implications for those responsible for communicating with the public during a crisis and for researchers seeking a better understanding of the flow of crisis communications on social media.

Through Good Times and Bad: The Influence of Workplace Social Support on IT Professionals’ Turnover Intention during the COVID-19 Crisis

  • Barbara Prommegger
  • Helmut Krcmar

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted both employers and employees in many sectors. What is not yet clear is how the current changes will affect the IT job market and the career behavior of information technology (IT) professionals. Regardless of what these changes will look like, retaining qualified IT professionals will remain a crucial challenge for many companies that want to master the digitization accelerated by COVID-19. This challenge raises the following major question-how will companies retain their IT staff, even in times of crisis? We therefore examine the construct of workplace social support by using a survey of 212 IT professionals to investigate the extent to which workplace social support can be used as a suitable instrument for reducing turnover intention during crises. We discover that workplace social support reduces the perceived negative influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on professional life and increases perceived job security during the crisis. Furthermore, IT professionals with a high level of workplace social support suffer less often from negative emotions such as anger or fear. This positive influence subsequently reduces IT professionals’ turnover intention. Our study provides insights into the positive effects of workplace social support during crises and informs companies about how they can successfully guide their IT employees through a crisis.

SESSION: Session 2 – IT Workforce and Telework

Emancipatory Data Science: A Liberatory Framework for Mitigating Data Harms and Fostering Social Transformation

  • Thema Monroe-White

The cross-cutting and interdisciplinary nature of data work has created an opportunity to engage more students from diverse backgrounds in data science and has expanded pathways for entry for future data professionals. However, without greater representation of Black, Indigenous, and other marginalized people of color in data science, we risk reinforcing existing systems of differentiated power that oppress as opposed to empower these groups. In this paper, the term emancipatory data science is coined to highlight the unique contributions of individuals who use their expertise to mitigate data harms for minoritized, and marginalized populations and to suggest a way forward for the data science workforce and research community given our increasingly algorithmic society.

All about My Employer – The Effects of Job Seeker Characteristics and Job Attributes on Electronic Staff Word of Mouth Helpfulness

  • Bingyang Fang
  • Srikanth Parameswaran
  • Rohit Valecha

We focus on the unaddressed area of electronic staff word of mouth (eSWOM) in employer review sites. We theorize the role of job characteristics (tangible vs. intangible) in online review content in impacting online review helpfulness. Besides, we hypothesize the moderating role of two dimensions, traditionalist and survivalist values of the job seeker’s culture, in the relationship between online review content and review helpfulness.

The Cybersecurity Skills Survey: Response to the 2020 SIM IT Trends Study

  • Chris Maurer
  • Mary Sumner
  • Dan Mazzola
  • Keri Pearlson
  • Tim Jacks

The Cybersecurity Skills Survey was developed and implemented to respond to the high-demand for cybersecurity professionals, noted by the findings of the 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 SIM (Society for Information Management) IT Trends and Issues Study. These findings were based upon input from over 1,000 IT leaders representing 37 SIM Chapters. The goals of the cybersecurity skills survey were to identify: (1) What technical skills are needed for entry-level professionals in cybersecurity jobs? (2) What professional skills are needed for entry level professionals in cybersecurity jobs? (3) What technical skills are needed for early-career professionals in cybersecurity jobs? and (4) What professional skills are needed for early-career professionals in cybersecurity jobs? The survey findings provide key insights into in-demand skills and “difficult-to-find” competencies. This paper reports on 99 responses captured from IT leaders representing the SIM Chapters in St. Louis, Austin, Milwaukee, and Phoenix, and is part of an ongoing data collection effort to include the Chapters in Tampa, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, and Boston. Dialogues between academic professionals and industry leaders in each of these professional communities are contributing to meeting the demand for talented cybersecurity graduates.

The Impact of Electronic Surveillance on Teleworkers’ Well-being

  • William Grant Clary

The COVID-19 pandemic forced many organizations to adapt their current processes. Employees were sent home to adhere to the social distancing guidelines. Where previous managers could check in on their subordinates in person, they must now face new ways to keep track of teleworking employees. However, these new ways of surveilling might infringe on employee well-being. This research in progress submission discusses plans to employ a grounded theory methodology to explore the new phenomenon.

Why do People (not) Want to Work from Home? An Individual-focused Literature Review on Telework

  • Sven Laumer
  • Christian Maier

One challenge of telework before the Covid-19 pandemic, but even during it, is that even if organizations offer telework programs employees are not willing to work from home. Instead, they prefer to stay in the office. We conducted a literature review of 32 studies focusing on telework adoption to propose the employee telework adoption model, informing research and practice about telework and its successful implementation. Guided by the theory of planned behavior we identified six behavioral beliefs fostering telework adoption and five behavioral beliefs hindering telework adoption. Moreover, we reveal one normative and three control beliefs that foster or hinder it. This belief set constitues the employee telework adoption model, which is further discussed in terms of its implications for research and its guidance for future research endoveaurs.

SESSION: Session 3 – IT Professionals

Understanding Boundaryless IT Professionals: An Investigation of Personal Characteristics, Career Mobility, and Career Success

  • Barbara Prommegger
  • Daniyal Arshad
  • Helmut Krcmar

Shifts in the evaluation of career success and an increase in boundary-spanning activities in the IT profession pave the way for new career models in IT. Instead of opting for a technical or managerial career in IT, more and more IT professionals follow boundaryless career forms, i.e. IT careers that do not correspond to a horizontal career path but allow career transitions between organizations and sectors. To better understand this trend, we examine three boundaryless IT professional groups-late-entry IT professionals, boomerang IT professionals, and IT leavers. Investigating German socio-economic panel data, we examine their personal characteristics, career mobility patterns, and career success factors. We find a high proportion of IT professionals following boundaryless careers, demonstrating that IT is becoming increasingly open to transition from and to other sectors. We also discuss the high proportion of women in boundaryless IT careers, thus illustrating alternative career paths for women in IT. Finally, we show that boundaryless IT professionals tend to have a higher workload in IT jobs than in non-IT jobs, yet, simultaneously, earn more and exhibit higher life satisfaction. Our study contributes to a better understanding of boundaryless IT careers.

Information System-Marketing Manager Dyad Presence in Top Management Teams: A Study on Demographic Diversity, Power Disparity and Organizational Performance

  • Tenace Setor

Technological advances in artificial intelligence and big data technologies have paved the way for next-generation marketing strategies that deliver personalized content experiences [1], [2]. This convergence between marketing and technological advances not only makes the relationship between information system (IS) and marketing managers a strategic priority but also interdependent dyads [3].

Managerial Technostress: A Qualitative Study on Causes and Consequences

  • Katharina Pflügner
  • Annalena Baumann
  • Christian Maier

Technostress is widespread among employees in modern work life. While research has identified the causes and consequences of technostress for the general working population, insights into how managers perceive technostress, i.e. managerial technostress, remains scarce. However, these insights are relevant as there are indications that the causes and consequences of technostress for managers are different than for non-managerial employees, for instance because they perceive divergent demands and resources at work related to their hierarchical status. We conduct a qualitative interview study with 20 managers and examine the relevance of multiple techno-stressors for managers as well as their adverse psychological and physical consequences. The results indicate that techno-overload and techno-complexity are high among managers. Results also show that techno-overload and techno-invasion are specifically demanding for managers compared to non-managerial employees, while techno-insecurity is not an issue for managers. We contribute to technostress research by revealing that the techno-stressors are differently relevant for managers, by highlighting which techno-stressors need to be addressed for managers by mitigation strategies. We also show that there are short-term as well as long-term consequences of techno-stressors among managers which both should be considered.

Are IT Professionals Better Off when They Return to Their Former Employer? An Employee Perspective on IT Boomerang Careers

  • Christian Maier
  • Sven Laumer
  • Tim Weitzel
  • Damien Joseph

Rehiring IT professionals is a valuable strategy to fill vacancies. While recent research has shown why IT professionals will return to a previous employer, we extend this line of inquiry to analyze whether boomerang employees who have returned to a previous employer consider their new situation better than the first time. Drawing on the job characteristics model and belief-update theory, we interviewed 39 boomerang employees working in the IT industry. The results indicate that all of them are more satisfied with their job after returning, yet for different reasons. While the majority (31 IT professionals) evaluate core job characteristics as improved after returning, others report increased job satisfaction, among others, for private reasons. Our main contribution to the growing literature on boomerang IT employees is that the grass is not always greener at other firms.

SESSION: Session 4 – Digital Innovation, Mindsets and Adaptation

Towards a Conceptual Model of Digital Innovation Success

  • Ferdinand Mittermeier
  • Axel Hund
  • Daniel Beimborn
  • Heinz-Theo Wagner

Although digital innovation (‘DI’) is a popular research field in these days, when it comes to innovation success, it has not yet been properly grounded in theory. Accordingly, there are prob-lems in identifying both generic and context-specific critical success factors (CSF) within the innovation process. Existing literature has focused mainly on the development of dynamic capabilities. We argue that to build digital innovation capabili-ties, an organization must first understand and support the ac-tions of those who are actively developing DI. To uncover spe-cific actions that constitute CSFs within every dimension of the digital innovation process, we follow a multiple case study de-sign with seven companies from different industries. Here, we build upon the ‘digital innovation framework’ which defines the process of creating DI across four dimensions (initiate, de-velop, implement, exploit). Based on these case studies, we build a conceptual model consisting of digital innovation actions, critical success factors and contingency factors. The proposed model serves as a starting point for future research, which should focus on a detailed quantitative investigation of the cause-effect relationships and the contingency factors to vali-date our propositions

The Intangible Key for Digitalization: Conceptualizing and Measuring the “Digital Mindset”

  • Yannick Hildebrandt
  • Daniel Beimborn

Capturing the Complexity of Cognitive Computing Systems: Co-Adaptation Theory for Individuals

  • Rasha Alahmad
  • Lionel P. Robert

Cognitive computing systems (CCS) are the new generation of automated IT systems that mimic human cognitive capabilities. CCS reshape the interaction between humans and machines and challenge our traditional assumptions of technology use and adoption. This work introduces co-adaptation and defines it as the series of activities that a user and a system engage in simultaneously to make the system fit the user. Co-adaptation involves two types of adaptation: human adaptation and machine adaptation. Human adaptation refers to the user either changing their behavior to adjust to the technology or changing the technology to adjust to their use. Machine adaptation refers to the system adapting itself to fit users’ needs. We use polynomial regression and response surface analysis to examine the impact of co-adaptation on individual performance. We add to previous work by offering a solid theoretical argument with supporting evidence that congruence between human adaptation and machine adaptation plays a critical role in determining the impact of technology use on individuals and their performance.